Communication (from Latin communicare, meaning “to share”) is the act of conveying meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs, symbols, and semiotic rules.
The main steps inherent to all communication are:
- The formation of communicative motivation or reason.
- Message composition (further internal or technical elaboration on what exactly to express).
- Message encoding (for example, into digital data, written text, speech, pictures, gestures and so on).
- Transmission of the encoded message as a sequence of signals using a specific channel or medium.
- Noise sources such as natural forces and in some cases human activity (both intentional and accidental) begin influencing the quality of signals propagating from the sender to one or more receivers.
- Reception of signals and reassembling of the encoded message from a sequence of received signals.
- Decoding of the reassembled encoded message.
- Interpretation and making sense of the presumed original message.
The scientific study of communication can be divided into:
- Information theory which studies the quantification, storage, and communication of information in general;
- Communication studies which concerns human communication;
- Biosemiotics which examines communication in and between living organisms in general.
The channel of communication can be visual, auditory, tactile (such as in Braille) and haptic, olfactory, electromagnetic, or biochemical.
Human communication is unique for its extensive use of abstract language. Development of civilization has been closely linked with progress in telecommunication.